Automated Decision-Making (ADM) systems range from social media to traffic management, and are populated by machines – arrangements of software, rules, protocols and devices that identify, acquire, collect, manage and process data.

As part of their operations, these machines make sequences of choices and predictions that may have far-reaching consequences.

For example, such machines may post anti-vaccination or pro-vaccination information to your Facebook feed, or diagnose that you have cancer, or predict that your child is at risk of abuse from your family.

ADM machines are incorporating extraordinary developments across a range of technologies.

In addition to the explosion and distribution of data sources and operations described in the Data Research Program, communications infrastructure, distributed sensors and processing, web-controlled devices and protocols for verifying transactions have all evolved rapidly.

Simultaneously, major advances in machine learning, deep learning and artificial intelligence, along with new generative approaches to synthesising new content, have dramatically expanded the scope of ADM across a range of social domains accompanying considerable legal, ethical, social and political implications.